The European nettle tree also known as European Hackberry or Lote tree (Celtis australis), is a deciduous tree that can grow 20 or 25 meters in height.
Leaves: Simple, alternate, and sharp-toothed are rough on top, and furry underneath., 5 to 15 cms long and dark grey/green throughout the year fading to a pale yellow before falling in autumn.
Flowers: The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) small and green without petals, either singly or in small clusters. Not effective ornamentally.
Fruit: Small, dark-purple berries (drupes), 1 cm wide hang in short clusters and are extremely popular with birds and other wildlife.
Bark: Smooth, gray bark develops picturesque corky warts and ridges as it matures.
The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils, requires well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It requires dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought. The Mediterranean climate is especially suitable for the plant.
It is often planted as an ornamental as it is resistant to air pollution and long-living. The fruit of this tree is are sweet and edible, and can be eaten raw or cooked. The leaves and fruit are astringent, lenitive and stomachic. decoction of both leaves and fruit is used in the treatment of amenorrhoea, heavy menstrual and intermenstrual bleeding and colic. The decoction can also be used to astringe the mucous membranes in the treatment of diarrhoea, dysentery and peptic ulcers A yellow dye is obtained from the bark Wood - very tough, pliable, durable. Widely used by turners. The flexible thin shoots are used as walking sticks.